- The “plough” has become the symbol of agriculture, many still think that agriculture is only possible through use of tillage approach.
- Most small-holder farmers rely on using their crop residues for animal feed/ fuel, reducing the availability for other agricultural practices.
- Communal grazing rights often apply in rural communities making it difficult to decide unilaterally to keep residues on the fields.
- The principal function of tillage is weed control and so, when tillage stops, weed control becomes a major factor.
- Small-holder farmers are often poorly linked to knowledge and information systems to offer them alternative approaches.
- Farmers without secure access to land may be reticent to invest their time and effort in conserving and improving the land.
- Small-scale equipment for seeding crops without tillage are not readily available in many regions.
- The principles of conservation agriculture need to be adapted to local biophysical conditions and farmer circumstances. This takes time.
- Often the policies and procedures of governments and international institutions tend to favour short-term approaches only.